安德罗machi Athanasopoulou博士分享了女性ceo对她们领导旅程的见解

Andromachi Athanasopoulou博士发表第三次2019年GTC领导力讲座

这是2019年绿色坦普尔顿领导力系列讲座的第三次演讲, 由管理机构研究员Sue Dopson教授召集, 被称为, 《e彩票》. 绿坦普尔顿的安娜·克莱门特, 哲学政治:欧洲政治与社会, 当晚的报道如下:

2月7日, e彩票平台学院欢迎安德罗machi Athanasopoulou博士,他是e彩票平台学院的博士生, former Green Templeton Junior Research Fellow and currently Senior Lecturer in Organisational Behaviour at Queen Mary University of London – for an inspiring talk on women and leadership.

这次演讲是基于她最近与e彩票平台博士校友A. Moss-Cowan和绿色坦普尔顿管理机构成员M. 手中和T. Morris,作为一个更大项目的一部分,该团队与a.怀特(也是绿色坦普尔顿管理机构成员), 来探索这个问题:首席执行官如何培养在变化的世界中领导的能力?’

他们研究了领导者会给有抱负的ceo们什么建议, 采访了151位全球企业ceo. 其中92%为男性,8%为女性. 151名女性中只有12名似乎少得惊人, but it is actually reflective of the global context: only 9% of the global pool of CEOs or managing directors are female, 在七国集团中,只有7%的女性担任高级管理层的首席执行官. 玻璃天花板仍然是一个未破碎的现实.

这些数字代表了一个稳定的趋势,即使毕业的女性比男性多. Athanasopoulou和她的同事们考虑了是什么让一些女性成为首席执行官, 同时着眼于上下文元素, 比如来自环境的由外而内的影响, 和个人的元素, 由内而外的个人经历和行为. 他们要求女性领导者解释她们的领导历程, 他们在三个“自我”过程模型中总结了什么:自我接受, 自我发展, 和自我管理.

This research fits in the wider literatures on gender bias at the workplace and leadership development and gender. 根据文献, the social factors holding women back from top positions concern the gendered patterns of experience accumulated from birth through childhood, 因为女性不认为自己是领导者. 正如Ibarra(2014)所言, 他们还“受到过多的指导,却得不到足够的资助”, 很少有机会接触到女性榜样和导师.

此外, the glass cliff phenomenon means women and minorities tend to be considered for leadership positions especially in times of crises, 当人们选择男性在经济繁荣时期领导时:“想想管理者。, think male; think crisis, 认为女性.“终于, 女性必须面对的工作与生活的特殊取舍通常被认为是一个重要的障碍.

另一个主要趋势是关注个人行为和特征. Women have less access to leadership opportunities in childhood; they are encouraged to adopt characteristics of invisibility and modesty and are less likely to speak up; because of this they are also disinclined to self-promote. 当成功, 他们可能会患上神经性骗子综合症, 觉得自己不配. 最后, they are punished for deviating from what are considered the expected or appropriate gendered behaviours at work.

Other research looks at different leadership styles and perceptions of effectiveness between men and women. 领导者的形象通常被认为是男性或女性, 在最好的情况下, 无性的, 女性领导者的评价也不如男性领导者(即使是女性自己也这么认为)!). Similar roles are enacted differently by each gender: male leadership is more transactional (promising reward or punishment), 而女性更具有变革性(更民主和包容). 最后, 当测试能力, 女性得分超过男性, 在12/16项技能中获得更好的结果(包括主动和推动结果). 然而,男人似乎更善于制定战略(这是, 然而, 但在Athanasopoulou及其同事的研究中,女性CEO层面的情况并非如此).

最后,领导力课程似乎无助于培养“领导者身份”。. 这可能再次归因于有限的女性榜样、性别化的职业道路和文化偏见.

Athanasopoulou和同事的研究采用了定性研究, 半结构化访谈, e彩票自我有三个元主题:自我接受, 自我发展, 和自我管理.

Self-acceptance mainly concerned how the female CEOs came to recognise and accept their own leadership potential, 并应对自己和他人对自己优先事项的期望. 在她们采访的女性中, 11 out of 12 identified the defining moment of leadership with work-related experiences (while for men it is usually personal, 比如在高中当篮球队长). 同样,克服信心障碍是他们旅途中的根本. 个人发展方面包括推动自己的极限, 不断自我发展,勇于决策, 同时学习他们工作的表现性方面. 最后,他们认为有必要将消极因素重新定义为积极因素,以培养韧性.

在自我发展方面, great importance was given to developing bigger picture and learning not to micromanage; putting emphasis on strategy, vision and purpose; and learning how to prioritise— as one interviewee put it, "选择你的死亡之山". Another important lesson learnt was that women should be proactive and ask for opportunities rather than waiting for others to include them. 在指导方面, 他们建议与一位优秀的管理者一起工作,他是一位领导者,也可以向他们学习, 因为没有女性导师, 在女性团结中互相支持.

女性也应该发展自己的变革型领导风格, 通过创造愿景和动力来激励他人. 还有一个因素就是培养他人, 正如其中一名受访者所说, 有了孩子会让你更善于与人相处. 沟通的重要性是这种领导风格的一部分,尤其是妥协的力量. 最后, 他们注意到分析和直觉的重要结合, 以及两者之间的平衡.

e彩票自我管理, 保持真实是至关重要的, not having a leadership style where you are just copying masculine behaviour and striking a fine balance between appearing neither pushy nor self-promoting, 但是要成功地扮演好你的领导角色,完成工作. 同样重要的是,通过坚持不懈和关注你的目标,让自己变得坚强起来. 最后, there is a special role for embracing risk: getting out of your comfort zone is a fundamental part of the job, 如果你不愿承担风险,那么你就不是CEO的合适人选.

比较男性和女性ceo给出的建议,也能得出有趣的见解. 只有十分之一的男性CEO会向女性提供与男性相同的建议. 男性特别重视择业时机, suggesting that the child-rearing years are crucial to develop capabilities and formative experiences to become a CEO later. 当你有孩子的时候,他们会记录路径相关的结果, 你不应该在25-30岁的时候有. 这与女性ceo形成了鲜明对比, 谁在事物的大计划中观察到这一点, 在漫长的职业生涯中,几年后并不是世界末日. 然而, 一位受访者建议,要仔细选择你要嫁的男人, 所以你可以在国内做出权衡.

Male CEOs remark that mentoring and sponsorship should come from people who made the same progression as opposed to men—which also sounds like passing the buck. 最后, 他们认为性别上的谨慎和过度分析阻碍了女性的发展, and low self-esteem (even if with a higher potential) as preventing them from being their own advocate.

女性ceo们也建议不要太咄咄逼人,但要相信自己, 他们认为男性在简历中总是强调他们能做什么, 当女人做她们不能做的事情时. They also recommend thinking of yourself as a leader and asking for the job beyond middle-management. 最后,他们鼓励坚韧和发展厚皮的负面反馈.

那么女性可以为自己做些什么呢?

在自我接受方面, they should take active ownership of their careers—making things happen rather than waiting for them to happen—by consciously deciding on trade offs, 优先考虑, 掌控自己的生活和事业.

在自我发展方面, 他们应该接受“雌雄同体”的领导, developing a unique leadership style that combines vision and strategy (which are considered typically male characteristics) with what are considered more stereotypically female characteristics, 比如更有对话和包容性的风格.

最后, e彩票自我管理, 他们应该诠释自己的领导风格, 保持真实的自我,而不只是表现得像男性领导者, 做老板时不要太专横——研究人员称之为“empassertiveness”。.

也有e彩票组织和人力资源机构改革的建议. 对自我, 各组织应通过赋予妇女权力来支持积极的所有权, 例如通过高管培训和高管教育培训. They should also support the long game in terms of having organisational practices that facilitate women to reconcile the trade-off between choosing your family or your career.

自我发展, they should help build new networks and connections by attracting mentors and helping women building political capital (rather than just social or information capital). 他们应该通过高层领导的认可,将男女同体的领导体制化, 新使命宣言, and a new gender agenda at the institutional level (which could be presented in places such as the World Economic Forum or Women on Boards).

最后, 的自我管理, 他们应该支持“领导力翻译”, so that in job advertisements and applications women are not put off by a lexicon gathered principally towards men. 他们还应该编写一本新的领导力词典, 这意味着e彩票可以用新的方式来讨论领导者的特点,而不是那么性别化, 因为e彩票谈论事物的方式决定了e彩票实践它们的方式.

最后,在Athanasopoulou与S. 多普森(绿色坦普尔顿管理机构成员),M. Smets和牛津大学的其他研究人员, 他们正在采访100多名女性领导人. The emerging themes from the first 59 interviews are that self-acceptance is the catalyst to imagine oneself as leader: accepting you could be a leader is essential to experimenting with leadership roles.

Three particularly interesting observations came from the audience at the end of the talk: one is that women often change organisations rather than grow in them, perhaps for a lack of internal opportunities open to them; another one is that skills are judged differently according to gender: women are valued for their skills, 而评判男人的标准是他们的潜力. 最后, 教育系统需要改革, 女孩们从小就被赋予权力,并被教导将自己视为潜在的领导者.

总之, 这次谈话突显出,渴望成为首席执行官的女性仍然面临着许多挑战, 玻璃天花板在很大程度上是现实的. 改变女性的观点是很重要的, 看到并接受自己是领导者, 从他们很小的时候开始. 更广泛地说是给女性领导者的建议,更具体地说是给有抱负的女性ceo的建议, 研究建议接受他们的“雌雄同体”领导方式, 一种独特的领导风格,他们不只是模仿男人, but embrace the positive characteristics that come from stereotypical female characteristics and behaviours.

如果你想了解更多e彩票这项研究的信息,请点击这些链接

了解更多e彩票2019年GTC领导力讲座的信息

创建日期:2019年2月14日